Apoptosis is an early event involved in cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes mellitus. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling triggers cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression has been shown in diabetic mice. This study aimed to delineate the role of TLR4 in myocardial apoptosis, and to block this process through gene silencing of TLR4 in the myocardia of diabetic mice.METHODS:
Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 mice by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were treated with 50 μg of TLR4 siRNA or scrambled siRNA as control. Myocardial apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay.RESULTS:
After 7 days of hyperglycemia, the level of TLR4 mRNA in myocardial tissue was significantly elevated. Treatment of TLR4 siRNA knocked down gene expression as well as diminished its elevation in diabetic mice. Apoptosis was evident in cardiac tissues of diabetic mice as detected by a TUNEL assay. In contrast, treatment with TLR4 siRNA minimized apoptosis in myocardial tissues. Mechanistically, caspase-3 activation was significantly inhibited in mice that were treated with TLR4 siRNA, but not in mice treated with control siRNA. Additionally, gene silencing of TLR4 resulted in suppression of apoptotic cascades, such as Fas and caspase-3 gene expression. TLR4 deficiency resulted in inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting suppression of hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis by TLR4 is associated with attenuation of oxidative stress to the cardiomyocytes.CONCLUSIONS:
In summary, we present novel evidence that TLR4 plays a critical role in cardiac apoptosis. This is the first demonstration of the prevention of cardiac apoptosis in diabetic mice through silencing of the TLR4 gene.
CEO, Dr. Vlad Bogin collaborates on a scientific publication describing new gene responsible for heart damage in diabetics. For more detailed information see abstract of the article.
Ukraine, the eight largest European country by population, is an attractive location for sponsors conducting clinical research for a number of key reasons. Cromos Pharma has been successfully managing clinical trials in Ukraine since 2006. This article looks at just some of the benefits of locating your next study here.
Cromos Pharma is continuously developing and looking to explore new territories when it comes to clinical research. In line with this spirit of discovery, we will be shortly commencing a new project in Uzbekistan supporting a study being conducted by the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute.
Cromos Pharma is delighted to be taking part in the upcoming DIA Europe conference (15 – 19 March 2021) and BIO-Europe Spring (22-25 March 2021).
February 11th is International Women and Girls in Science Day. A joint UNESCO and UN-Women initiative, it aims to promote the role of #WomenInScience and to challenge some of the barriers to girls pursuing a career in science.
Are you a sponsor seeking to conduct clinical trials in the European Union but do not have a registered office in the European Economic Area? If so, in order to comply with the European Union Clinical Trial Directive, you are required to work with a Legal Representative registered in an EEA country.
Each 4th February, #WorldCancerDay aims to raise awareness of the global personal, social and economic burden of cancer. World Cancer Day was established in Paris at the first World Cancer Summit in 2000.
As 2021 begins, many countries are grappling with a renewed surge of COVID-19 infections necessitating further public health restrictions putting more pressure on health systems, societies and global economies. The task of rolling out approved vaccines is increasingly urgent. Almost 16 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered to date in 37 countries worldwide according to data compiled by Bloomberg ( updated 7 Jan 2021).
Tuesday 1 December marked World AIDS Day 2020. Although throughout this year our focus has been on the coronavirus pandemic, World AIDS Day is an opportunity to reflect on another pandemic where a virus passed from animals to humans with devastating consequences. To date 77 million people worldwide have been infected with HIV. In spite of innovative new treatments 35 million people have died from the virus.
If you missed the live webinar “Where in the world should I locate my pivotal clinical trial?” you can now watch the recording by clicking here. The webinar hosted by the Society of Physician Entrepreneurs (SoPE) and Workforce Genetics features Cromos Pharma's CEO Vlad Bogin, M.D, FACP.